Suku Bajau

Prabu Siliwangi
Suku Bajo, Suku bangsa Indonesia

Suku Bajau atau Suku Sama adalah suku bangsa yang tanah asalnya Kepulauan Sulu, Filipina Selatan. Suku ini merupakan suku nomaden yang hidup di atas laut, sehingga disebut gipsi laut. Suku Bajau menggunakan bahasa sama-bajau. Suku Bajau sejak ratusan tahun yang lalu sudah menyebar ke negeri sabah dan berbagai wilayah Indonesia. Suku Bajau juga merupakan anak negeri di Sabah. Suku-suku di Kalimantan diperkirakan bermigrasi dari arah utara (Filipina) pada zaman prasejarah. Suku Bajau yang Muslim ini merupakan gelombang terakhir migrasi dari arah utara Kalimantan yang memasuki pesisir Kalimantan Timur hingga Kalimantan Selatan dan menduduki pulau-pulau sekitarnya, lebih dahulu daripada kedatangan suku-suku Muslim dari rumpun bugis yaitu suku bugid, suku mandar. Saat ini, Suku Bajau menyebar hampir di seluruh kepulauan Indonesia (terutama Indonesia Timur), bahkan sampai ke Madagaskar. Kebanyakan Suku Bajau yang menyebar mulai tinggal menetap dan berbaur dengan suku-suku lain.

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Suku Bajau
(Sama, Bajo, atau Samal)

Total populasi
Setidaknya 470.000 di Filipina; Setidaknya 436.672 di Sabah, Malaysia; Tidak diketahui di Indonesia dan Brunei.
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
 Filipina
(Kepulauan Sulu, Semenanjung Zamboanga,Davao del SurMindanao) Malaysia
(Sabah) Indonesia
(Kalimantan dan Sulawesi) Brunei
Bahasa
Rumpun Sama-Bajau,[2] TausūgCebuanoTagalogMelayuIndonesia and Inggris
Agama
Islam Sunni (mayoritas),
AbanganAnimismeKristen
Kelompok etnis terkait
YakanIranun,
TausūgMoro lainnya,
Melayu dan Bangsa Austronesia lainnya

Wilayah yang terdapat suku Bajau di Indonesia, antara lain:

  1. Kalimantan Timur (BerauBontang, dan lain-lain)[3]
  2. Kalimantan Selatan (Kota Baru) disebut orang Bajau Rampa Kapis[4][5][6]
  3. Sulawesi Selatan (Selayar)
  4. Sulawesi Tenggara
  5. Nusa Tenggara Barat
  6. Nusa Tenggara Timur (Pulau boleng, Seraya, Longos, Komodo dan sekitarnya)
  7. Sapeken, Sumenep
  8. Wilayah Indonesia timur lainnya
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Namun Bajau yang terdapat di kepulauan Maratua telah melekat dengan budaya Indonesia. Sehingga telah jauh berbeda dengan bajau Sulu, Filipina. Maksudnya disini, berbeda secara bahasa, logat/intonasi dalam berbicara, dan keyakinan masyarakan setempat. Bajau Maratua juga memiliki kehidupan yang dapat dikatakan layak. Bahkan memiliki pekerjaan dan pendidikan yang tinggi. Masyarakat Suku bajau Maratua mayoritas menganut agama islam. Tidak ada yang menganut kepercayaan animisme maupun ateis. Suku bajau Maratua juga tinggal atau bermukim di atas tanah dengan membuat rumah-rumah sederhana yang layak ditempati, berbeda dengan bajau laut Sulu, Filipina yang tinggal di atas permukaan laut dan beraktivitas di dalam perahu sehingga disebut juga sebagai “Pala’U” atau dalam bahasa indonesia artinya perahu. Bajau Maratua ini juga mengenal tulisan dan bacaan sehingga tak heran banyak dari anak-anak suku bajau menganyam pendidikan ke jenjang yang lebih tinggi. Bisa dikatakan kalau bajau Maratua ini adalah Bajau modern karena kehidupan yang telah modern, memiliki keyakinan (Non Animisme, Non Ateis), Menganyam pendidikan, bermukim di atas tanah dan bersosialisasi seperti masyarakat pada umumnya.

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