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Kepulauan Sapeken, Pulau Mayoritas Suku Bajau di Pulau Jawa

Ghozi Ahmad

Sapeken adalah sebuah kecamatan di Kepulauan Kangean, Kabupaten Sumenep, Provinsi Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Wilayah ini terletak di bagian paling ujung . Uniknya, penduduk di Kepulauan Sapeken ini berbahasa Sulawesi (bahasanya: bahasa Bajau, bahasa Mandar dan sebagian kecil berbahasa Bugis) bukan berbahasa Madura karena dalam sejarahnya orang Sulawesilah yang menemukan kepulauan ini. Begitu juga dengan kultur budaya sangat berbeda dengan budaya Madura, rata-rata suku yang ada di Kepulauan Sapeken (Kecamatan Sapeken) Suku Bajau, suku Mandar dan suku Bugis. Kepulauan Sapeken ini terletak di sebelah utara Bali.

Sulit mengatakan keadaan ekonomi pulau tersebut. Mayoritas penduduk bermata pencaharian sebagai nelayan dan pedagang. Ditinjau dari segi bentuk rumah mayoritas berbentuk rumah panggung yang kelihatannya bisa dikatakan rumah yang sederhana sekali. Mereka membuat rumah panggung karena dulu pada waktu air laut pasang sampai masuk ke rumah penduduk. Kembali ke masalah ekonomi. Bila ditinjau dari segi kepemilikan isi perabotan rumah tanggah, mereka termasuk orang orang yang mampu. Mayoritas mereka mempunayai TV 21 inc, kulkas, Hp yang minimal ada kameranya. Maklum mereka mudah mencari uang tinggal pergi melaut dapat ikan dijual sudah dapat pendapatan. Umumnya mereka pergi ke kota Singaraja karena untuk perjalan hanya dapat ditempuh kira-kira 6 jam. Kalau kira-kira persediaan udah menipis mereka pergi ke laut lagi untuk mencari ikan. Itulah kebiasaan orang-orang Sapeken.

Baca juga:

Kecamatan Sapeken mempuanyai luas total wilayah 201,88 Km 2 (9,64 % dari luas Kabupaten Sumenep). Jumlah Desa di Kecamatan Sapeken sebanyak 9 desa antara lain. Selain itu terdapat juga beberapa pulau yang masih masuk wilayah administrasi Kecamatan Sapeken. Jumlah pulau terdiri dari 53 terdiri dari 21 pulau berpenghuni, 32 pulau tidak berpenghuni.

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Kecamatan Sapeken berbatasan dengan laut dan kecamatan lain. Pada sisi sebelah utara dibatasi oleh Laut Kalimantan, sebelah selatan dibatasi Laut Bali, sebelah timur dibatasi olehLaut Sulawesi, sebelah barat dibatasi oleh Laut Jawa.

Jumlah penduduk Kecamatan Sapeken secara keseluruhan berjumlah 37.765 jiwa (Bappeda Kab. Sumenep, 2003). Komposisi penduduk Kecamatan Sapeken terdiri dari laki-lakisebanyak 18.677 jiwa (49,46 %) dan perempuan 19.088 jiwa (50,54 %). Rasio jenis kelamin sebesar 97,85 % dengan kepadatan penduduk sebanyak 187,06 jiwa/Km 2.

Sarana dan Prasarana yang tersedia di Kecamatan Sapeken meliputi perhubungan, penerangan listrik, telekomunikasi, air bersih, perdagangan, pendidikan, kesehatan, sarana ibadah,kantor pemerintah, dan lembaga keuangan.

Sarana dan Prasarana perhubungan berupa jalan, darmaga, dan sarana angkutan. Panjang jalan darat secara keseluruhan sepanjang 39,341 Km dengan kondisi jalan rusak 9,53 %.Sarana angkutan darat bermotor terdiri dari sepeda motor, odong-odong dan tidak bermotor terdiri dari becak dan sepeda. Sarana lain yang terdapat di Kecamatan Sapeken adalah darmaga/pelabuhan terdapat di Desa Sapeken, Pegerungan Kecil dan Pagerungan Besar, Sabunten, Paliat, Sasiil, Sepanjang dan Sakala. Selain itu juga terdapat air port (bandara) yang terdapat di Pangerungan Besar.

Penerangan listrik di Kecamatan Sapeken sebagian besar sudah menggunakan PLN. Jumlah RT yang memakai PLN sebanyak 1.029 RT terdapat di sebagian besar desa dan non PLN sebanyak 309 RT terdapat di Desa Pagerungan Kecil dan Pagerungan Besar. Sarana komunikasi juga tersedia cukup lengkap antara lain kantor pos 1 unit, telkom 1 unit, Telkomsel,Indosat dan XL.

Sarana air bersih di Kecamatan Sapeken sangat mengandalkan air sumur. Seluruh desa sebanyak 9 RT memanfaatkan air sumur sebagai sumber air bersih. Untuk aktivitasperdagangan Kecamatan Sapeken dilengkapi dengan pasar desa. Sedangkan untuk pengembangan sumberdaya manusia, Kecamatan Sapeken dilengkapi dengan sarana pendidikanyang cukup lengkap. Hal itu tercermin dari ketersediaan sarana pendidikan yang cukup merata pada semua level pendidikan. Jumlah Taman Kanak Kanak sebanyak 19 unit, Sekolah Dasar sebanyak 32 unit, Madrasah Ibtidaiyah sebanyak 30 unit, Sekolah Menengah Pertama sebanyak 3 unit, Madrasah Tsanawiyah sebanyak 3 unit, dan Madrasah Aliyah sebanyak 1 unit, Sekolah Menengah Umum 1 unit dan Perguruan Tinggi 1 Unit.

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Sarana kesehatan di Kecamatan Sapeken terdiri dari Puskesmas, Puskesmas pembantu dan BKIA/Polindes. Puskesmas berjumlah 1 unit terdapat di Desa Sapeken. Sedangkanpuskesmas pembantu berjumah 5 unit menyebar di beberapa desa. Sedangkan Polindes sebanyak 6 unit terdapat di sebagian besar desa.

Seluruh masyarakat di Kecamatan Sapeken memeluk agama Islam. Sarana ibadah meliputi mesjid sebanyak 31 unit, surau/musholla sebanyak 96 unit. Untuk tata administrasi pemerintahan di kecamatan Sapeken sarana kantor desa baru sebagian kecil ada. Sedangkan sebagai penggerak ekonomi dan keuangan di Kecamatan Sapeken juga sudah teredia lembaga keuangan yaitu koperasi simpan pinjam sebanyak 3 unit.

Sektor penggerak perekonomian Kecamatan Sapeken meliputi bidang pertanian tanamangan pangan, kehutanan dan perkebunan, peternakan, perikanan, industri, energi dan pertambangan serta wisata.

Produk-produk pertanian tanaman pangan meliputi padi, jagung dan ubi kayu. Produksi pertanian tanaman pangan masih didominasi oleh jagung, ketela pohon, kacang hijau, kacang tanah dan padi. Bidang kehutanan dan perkebunan terdiri dari kelapa, mente, mangga, pinang, pepaya dan pohon jati. Produk kehutanan dan perkebunan didominasi oleh kelapa. Bidang peternakan terdiri dari sapi, kuda, kambing, ayam dan itik/bebek. Bidang peternakan didominasi oleh sapi. Sedangkan bidang lainnya meliputi bidang industri (industri kecil makanan/minuman, Meubel, kimia dan minyak bumi dan industri kecil tas). Bidang lain yang tidak kalah pentingnya adalah bidang energi dan pertambangan terdiri dari tambang gas dan minyak bumi/gas alam. Selain itu bidang yang potensial berkontribusi terhadap perekonomian adlaah bidang pariwisata yaitu berupa wisata budaya, alam dan konservasi.

Khusus untuk bidang perikanan , potensi yang dimiliki Kecamatan Sapeken meliputi penangkapan ikan di laut, budidaya, perdagangan dan pengolahan. Hasil penangkapan ikan di laut antara lain ikan karang, ikan hias, layang, kepiting, dan kerang. Usaha penangkapan ikan didukung oleh armada tangkap berupa perahu bermotor 2.399 unit yang terdapat di seluruh desa dan tidak bermotor 1.214 unit .
Selain perikanan tangkap, bidang perikanan lainnya yang cukup berkembang yaitu budidaya perikanan dan pengolahan hasil perikanan. Jenis budidaya perikanan yang terdapat di Kecamatan Sapeken adalah budidaya laut meliputi budidaya rumput laut (Pulau Sapeken), budidaya ikan karang (P. Sapeken, P. Sibatok, P. Saular dan P. Sadulang kecil), budidaya layang (P. Sapeken) dan budidaya mutiara (P. Sepangkur besar dan kecil, P. Sabunten dan P. Paliat). Budidaya laut lainnya yang banyak terdapat di Kecamatan Sapeken adalah Budidaya penyu, budidaya kepiting (P. Sepangkur dan P. Sasil), budiadya mangrove (P. Bangkau) dan Budidaya terumbu karang (P. Saor).

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di samping kebayakan masyarakat sapeken nelayan ada sebagian kecil masyarakat hidup sebagai petani contohnya dipulau sepanajang,pulau yang paling besar di antara pulau pulau di sapeken yang sekarang di datangi oleh perusahan migas dan juga di pagerungan besar dimana perusahan ini mengambil minyak tanah di kepulauan sepanjang dan Pagerungan besar tersebut tetapi tidak menghiraukan kepentingan masyarakat setempat,misalnya fasilitas umum seperti jalan raya di sepanjang yang belum diperbaiki dan penerangan yang belum di bangun

Sumberdaya pesisir dan lautan lain yang dimiliki leh Kecamatan Sapeken adalah potensi wisata bahari. Taman laut yang terdapat di Pulau Saor (desa Sapeken) merupakan lokasi yang biasa digunakan untuk olahraga wind surving dan sky air. Selain itu juga terdapat pantai pasir putih yang indah dikelilingi terumbu karang yang terdapat di P. Saor, dan Pantai Nasir dan pantai senol Pagerungan kecil.

Penulis : Ghozi Ahmad

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