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ERNI BAJAU: DUATA MANDI MAYAH RITUAL PENGOBATAN ALTERNATIF SUKU BAJAU

Rangkaian Ritual Duata Mandi Mayah

Apa yang terbayang di pikiran Anda ketika mendengar ada seseorang atau sekelompok orang mengadakan acara ritual pengobatan dengan mengundang arwah atau  jiwanya dirasuki roh orang yang sudah meninggal? Di zaman milenial  ini, masih ada yang percaya dengan penampakan hantu, penampakan setan, jin atau sejenisnya. Masyarakat zaman dahulu percaya, bahwa segala sesuatu yang terjadi dalam kehidupan ini bersumber dari akibat pengaruh keberadaan roh dan makhluk halus, sehingga bila terjadi suatu penyakit, kemalangan, musibah dan lain sebagainya makan dukun atau sebutan lainnya menjadi pilihan pertama yang dituju

Baca juga: Asal-usul Orang Bajau Penamaan Bajo dan Bajau, serta Pemertahanan Bahasa Bajau (Kajian Sosiolingistik)

Baca juga: Erni Bajau Melakukan Sosialisasi Pentingnya Pendidikan ke Desa Bajau Sulaho Kabupaten Kolaka Utara Sultra

Baca juga: Suku Bajau Termasuk 5 Suku di Dunia yang Memiliki Kemampuan Super

Budaya suku Sama atau yang dikenal orang Bajau, sangat sarat hal mistik yang merupakan warisan leluhur. Tidak heran jika pada masyarakat suku Same atau orang Bajau, terdengar adanya ritual yang dapat mengundang arwah dan sejenisnya. Ritual yang mengundang arwah atau mengundang roh nenek moyang ke dalam diri si dukun dilakukan oleh masyarakat Bajo di Pulau Wawonii di Desa Langara Indah Kecamatan Wawonii Barat Kabupaten Konawe Kepulauan Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara.

Pada orang Bajo (suku Same/Bajo), dukundisebut sandro atau jannah. Tidak semua orang dapat menjadi sandro atau jannah. Mereka haruslah orang yang mempunyai kelebihan seperti menguasai ilmu pengobatan secara turun-temurun, mendapat wangsit, atau berasal dari garis keturunan sandro atau jannah.

SukuBajau sangat identik dengan kehidupan bahari atau laut. Bagi orang Bajau, laut merupakan sumber penghidupan, di lautlah hidup mereka, dari lautlah mereka dapat memenuhi kebutuhan kehidupan sehari-hari.

Di Sulawesi Tenggara komunitas Bajau tersebar di beberapa wilayah. Ada Bajau Mola di Wakatobi, Bajau Lasolo di Konawe Utara, Bajau Lasusua di Desa Sulaho Kabupaten Kolaka, Bajau Lasalimu di Buton, Bajau Langara di Konawe, Bajau Langi’ Bajo di Kota Kendari,  dan masih banyak komnitas Bajau yang tersebar di beberapa daerah di setiap kabupaten di Sulawesi Tenggara. Dalam sejarah masa lampau, kehidupan komunitas ini selalu berpindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lain. Sehingga Suku Bajau selalu ditemukan di hampir semua negara yang memiliki pesisir pantai. Meski dikenal sebagai suku nomaden, masyarakat Bajau di Pulau Wawonii sangat memelihara kebudayaan, menjunjung tinggi adat-istiadat, atau tradisi yang diwariskan secara turun-temurun, meskipun harus berhadapan dengan beberapa oknum tokoh agama setempat dengan alasan tradisi tersebut melanggar akidah. Salah satu tradisi masyarakat Bajau yang masih mereka pertahankan hingga saat ini adalah Tradisi Duata Mandi Mayah.

Duata merupakan kata saduran dari sebutan Dewata. Suku Bajau di Pulau Wawonii memiliki tardisi yang menunjukkan adanya korelasi yang sangat kuat antara manusia, laut, dan penguasa kehidupan. Dalam keyakinan mereka, Duata adalah Dewa yang turun dari langit dan menjelma menjadi sosok manusia. Tradisi Duata adalah puncak dari segala upaya pengobatan tradisional. Pengobatan ini dilakukan jika ada orang yang mengalami sakit menahun atau sakit parah dan tak lagi dapat disembuhkan dengan cara lain termasuk pengobatan medis.

Duata ada tiga macam, yakni Duata TuliDuata Liligo dan Duata Mandi Mayah. Ketiga jenis duata tersebut adalah untuk tujuan pengobatan, kecuali Duata Liligo biasanya juga digunakan untuk ritual syukuran. Upacara ritual Duata Mandi Mayah digelar apabila sandro atau Jannah mendapat wangsit atau petunjuk mengenai upaya pengobatan yang harus dilakukan oleh sang Sandro atau Jannah pada orang yang sakit

Duata Mandi Mayah adalah ritual pengobatan mandi dengan bunga pinang (mayah). Berguna untuk membersihkan penyakit yang ada dalam tubuh dan mengusir roh jahat yang menyebabkan sakit.

Mayah (bunga pohon pinang): Mayang

Duata Mandi Mayah diadakan apabila ada keturunan sandro/jannah sedang sakit parah dan pengobatan medis tidak dapat menyembuhkannya, sedangkan si sakit di saat-saat sakitnya sering tak sadarkan diri dan mengigau. Kalimat igauan si sakit oleh jannah setempat dikatakan adalah kalimat wangsit. Wangsit berupa imbauan agar si sakit diobati dengan cara menyelenggarakan pupugayang-nya (ritualnya). Bagi orang Bajau, setiap kelahiran anak pasti bersama kembarannya dalam hal ini adalah ari-arinya, ari-ari harus dibuang ke laut dan ari-ari ini adalah kaka’. Sehingga jika salah satu diantara mereka menderita sakit, dipercayai bahwa sebagian semangat hidup orang itu telah dambil oleh saudara kembarnya yakni si Kaka’ dan dibawa kelaut, sebagian lagi diambil oleh Dewa dan di bawa naik dilangit ke tujuh. Pada saat tertentu Kaka’ akan meminta pupugayang apabila pupugayang itu tidak dilaksanakan maka itulah penyebabnya orang sakit. Mandi Mayah adalah ritual yang harus dilakukan karena sang Kaka’menuntut pupugayang mandi mayah.

Ritual Duata Mandi Mayah diselenggarakan selama tujuh hari tujuh malam. Selain bunga pinang (mayah), peralatan yang digunakan dalam ritual ini adalah ranjangberukurang 1×2 meter, yang ditengah-tengahnya terdapat pohon bunga hiasan berwarna putih, yang melambangkan “makam Nabi Muhammad”, di keempat sudut ranjang terdapat bunga-bunga hiasan warna putih disimbolkan sebagai empat pengikut Nabi Muhammad. Juga kesembilan pohon-pohon bunga yang lebih kecil dilantai diatur memanjang menuju tempat si sakit di mandikan (kesembilan bungan di lantai mengarah ke arah tempat pemandian disimbolkan sebagai Sembilan Wali).

Hampir semua media yang digunakan berwarna putih

Hampir semua peralatan yang digunakan dalam upacara berwarna putih, mulai dari pakaian yang dikenakan oleh jannah, para anggota jannah/sandro, pakaian si sakit dan semua penganan atau kue-kue berwarna putih, bunga-bunga dan pohon imitasi berwarna putih, kain putih, dan sebagainya, kesemuanya harus berwarna putih.

Jannah /Sandro

Prosesi dimulai dengan pembacaan mantra oleh sandro dengan membakar dupa, memantra-mantrai semua jenis sajian berwarna putih, setelah sajian diberi mantra baru boleh dihidangkan. Setiap hari selama enam hari, ritual itu dilaksanakan, ditutup dengan Tari Ngigal, yakni Si Sakit akan menari dan menyanyi sambil mengelilingi ranjang(simbol makam) diikuti oleh para sandro dan anggota sandro dengan memegang bunga putih diiringi tabuhan gendang dan rebana. Di penghujung acara, sandro dan si sakit(yang bakal jadi sandro) akan memberikan bunga putih itu kepada tamu atau pengunjung yang hadir agar ikut menari, pengunjung atau tamu yang diberi bunga diwajibkan ikut menari. Hal itu diyakini bahwa orang yang diajak menari akan sembuh dari penyakit yang dideritanya.

Masyarakat Bajau yang ikut menari dan bernyanyi melantunkan syalawat Nabi

Pada hari ke tujuh, ritual lebih kompleks, selain bakar dupa, tarian dan nyanyian, maka diadakanlah ritual penutupan yaitu Mandi Mayah. Jannah dan anggotanya menuju tempat pemandian si sakit dengan menari dan menyanyi diiringi tabuhan gendang dan rebana diikuti si sakit, kemudian si sakit dengan campuran air kelapa yang tebaskan ke badan si sakit dengan menggunakan bungan pinang (mayah maka saat itu pula si sakittelah dikukuhkan menjadi sandro atau jannah. Setelah dikukuhkan menjadi sandro, maka sisa air mandi sandro baru digunakan sandro baru untuk mengobati dan memandikan para pengunjung atau para tamu yang hendak berobat.

Masyarakat mengantri untuk dimandikan dengan air bunga mayang

Dalam kehidupan masyarakat Bajau pelaksanaan Tradisi Duata tidak terbatas pada prosesi pengobatan tetapi juga dapat dilakukan dalam acara syukuran dan hajatan. Tradisi ini juga dilakukan untuk memberikan penghargaan pada penguasa laut yang mereka sebut sebagai Mbo’ Janggo’ atau Mbi Gulli atau Mbo’ Tambirah.

Seorang ayah membasuh wajah anaknya dengan air bunga mayang

Masyarakat Bajau di Desa Langara Indah berharap kekayaan tradisi yang dimiliki Masyarakat Bajau dapat semakin menambah kekayaan budaya Nusantara pada umumnya. Sehingga  dapat mengeksiskan diri sebagai salah satu suku di Indonesia dengan sejuta budaya, untuk mencegah negara lain mengklaim Budaya Duata Mandi Mayah sebagai milik mereka, mengingat Suku Bajau tersebar diberbagai penjuru dunia dengan bahasa yang sama dan budaya yang hampir sama pula seperti misalnya pada orang Bajau di Burma, Pulau Sulu di Filipina, Bajau di Johor Malaysia, dan lain sebagainya.

Mandi dengan air bunga mayang


DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Suyuti, H. Nasrudin. 2011. Orang Bajo di Tengah Perubahan. Yogyakarta: Ombak

Syarifuddin. 2008. Mantra Nelayan Bajo: Cermin Pikiran Kolektif Orang Bajo di Sumbawa. Disertasi. Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.http://nusntarajenaka.blogspot.com/2009/11/duata-tradisi-pengobatan-alternatif.htmlhttp://travel.okezone.com/read/2011/02/05/408/421695/menyimak-tradisi-duata-suku-bajjau-bajo

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